What are Powered Two-Wheelers (PTWs)?

The term “Powered Two-Wheeler” (PTW) covers a wide diversity of vehicles. The products are divided into different segments such as moped, scooter, street, classic, super-sport, touring, custom, supermoto and off-road motorcycles.

PTWs are one of the most affordable forms of personal transport in many parts of the world. In various regions, PTWs are also the most common type of motor vehicle.

In the international regulatory environment, in particular UNECE, PTWs are referred to with the term: ‘vehicles of category L’.

IMMA represents the manufacturing and trade industry of mopeds, motorcycles and three-wheelers. Therefore, IMMA refers to PTWs as Powered Two and Three wheeled Vehicles.

The classifications for PTWs category as applied by UNECE1 are:

Category L

Category L1: A two-wheeled vehicle with an engine cylinder capacity in the case of a thermic engine not exceeding 50 cm3 and whatever the means of propulsion a maximum design speed not exceeding 50km/h.

Category L2: A three-wheeled vehicle of any wheel arrangement with an engine cylinder capacity in the case of a thermic engine not exceeding 50 cm3 and whatever the means of propulsion a maximum design speed not exceeding 50 km/h.

Category L3: A two-wheeled vehicle with an engine cylinder capacity in the case of a thermic engine exceeding 50 cm3 or whatever the means of propulsion a maximum design speed exceeding 50 km/h.

Category L4: A vehicle with three wheels asymmetrically arranged in relation to the longitudinal median plane with an engine cylinder capacity in the case of a thermic engine exceeding 50 cm3 or whatever the means of propulsion a maximum design speed exceeding 50km/h (motor cycles with sidecars).

Category L5: A vehicle with three wheels symmetrically arranged in relation to the longitudinal median plane with an engine cylinder capacity in the case of a thermic engine exceeding 50 cm3 or whatever the means of propulsion a maximum design speed exceeding 50km/h.

Category L6: A vehicle with four wheels whose unladen mass is not more than 350 kg, not including the mass of the batteries in case of electric vehicles, whose maximum design speed is not more than 45 km/h, and whose engine cylinder capacity does not exceed 50 cm3 for spark (positive) ignition engines, or whose maximum net power output does not exceed 4 kW in the case of other internal combustion engines, or whose maximum continuous rated power does not exceed 4 kW in the case of electric engines.

Category L7: A vehicle with four wheels, other than that classified for the category L6, whose unladen mass is not more than 400 kg (550 kg for vehicles intended for carrying goods), not including the mass of batteries in the case of electric vehicles and whose maximum continuous rated power does not exceed 15 kW.

1
See the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3) for further information.